En 03b General Laws

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    Ott 2024

    3b. General Laws

    [019/08] General laws

    1. All Frya children are born in like wise. Therefore, they must also have the same rights, whether on land or on water,[1] or any place Wralda provides.

    2. Every man may ask the wife of his choice, and every daughter may respond by offering her cup of welcome to the one she loves.[2]

    3. When a man has taken a wife, they are given a house and yard. If there is none, it must be built.

    4. If he has gone to another village for a wife and he wishes to remain there, they must provide a house and yard, as well as free use of the commons.

    5. All shall be provided with a share of land behind their house as a yard. None may have a share before their house, much less a surrounding share. Only someone who has done a worthwhile deed serving the common good may be given such, and his youngest son may inherit it. But after that, the village must take it back. [020]

    6. Every village shall possess common land as required, and the alderman shall see to it that all fertilize and nurture their alloted share, so that those who come after might suffer no scarcity.

    7. Every village may have a market for buying and selling — or trading. All the remaining land shall be reserved for agriculture and woodland. But the trees thereof, none shall fell without common consent and without the knowledge of the forest-alderman, as the woods are for common use. Therefore, no one may own them.

    8. The village may not take market charges exceeding one-twelfth of the receipts,[3] neither from locals nor from strangers. And the market portion may not be sold before the other goods.

    9. All the market revenue must be annually divided into a hundred parts, three days before the Yule Day.

    10. The reeve and his aldermen shall receive twenty parts thereof; the market judge and his helpers five parts, ten parts for the market itself; the Folksmother one part and the regional mother four parts; the village ten parts, and the poor — that is, those who cannot work — fifty parts.

    11. Those who come to the market are strictly forbidden [021] to practice usury. If any should do so, the maidens are obliged to make them known throughout the whole land, so that they will never be chosen for any office. For such people have covetous hearts. To accumulate wealth, they would betray all; the folk, the mother, their relatives, and ultimately themselves.

    12. If any man is so corrupt that he sells diseased cattle or damaged goods as sound,[4] the market judge shall expel him and the maidens shall denounce him throughout the land.

    Notes

    1. ‘water’ (É. THÀT IS WÉTER — ‘ea — that is, water’) — an association is suggested with ÉWA (eawa: laws) and É.LIKA (ea-like: equally, the same).
    2. ‘cup of welcome’ (HELD.DRVNK) — lit.: ‘hail-drink’. Wedding traditions include the couple sharing a drink from a two-handled ‘coupe de mariage’ in France or a ‘quaich’ (also called a ‘cup of welcome’) in Scotland; a 'loving cup' is a two-handled ceremonial cup associated with weddings and often awarded as a trophy.
    3. ‘one-twelfth (share)’ (THA TILLIFTE DÉL) — a better spelling would have been THAT TWILIFTE DÉL.
    4. ‘diseased’ (SJVCHT.SIAK) — more specifically: dropsy or water sickness (swelling and accumulation of fluid).

    Sandbach 1876

    [p.31 cont.] Universal Law.

    1. All free-born, men are equal, wherefore they must all have equal rights on sea and land, and on all that Wr-alda has given.

    2. Every man may seek the wife of his choice, and every woman may bestow her hand on him whom she loves.

    3. When a man takes a wife, a house and yard must be given to him, If there is none, one must be built for him.

    4. If he has taken a wife in another village, and wishes to remain, they must give him a house there, and likewise the free use of the common.

    5. To every man must be given a piece of land behind his house. No man shall have land in front of his house, still less an enclosure, unless he bas performed some public service. In such a case it may be given, and the youngest son may inherit it, but after him it returns to the community.

    6. Every village shall possess a common for the general good, and the chief of the village shall take care that it is kept in good order, so that posterity shall find it uninjured.

    7. Every village shall have a market-place. All the rest of the land shall be for tillage and forest. No one shall fell trees without the consent of the community, or without the knowledge of the forester; for the forests are general property, and no man can appropriate them. [p.33]

    8. The market charges shall not exceed one-twelfth of the value of the goods either to natives or strangers. The portion taken for the charges shall not be sold before the other goods.[1]

    9. All the market receipts must be divided yearly into a hundred parts three days before the Juul-day.

    10. The Grevetman and his council shall take twenty parts; the keeper of the market ten, and his assistants five; the Volksmoeder one, the midwife four, the village ten, and the poor and infirm shall have fifty parts.

    11. There shall be no usurers in the market.

    If any should come, it will be the duty of the maidens to make it known through the whole land, in order that such people may not be chosen for any office, because they are hard-hearted.

    For the sake of money they would betray everybody—the people, the mother, their nearest relations, and even their own selves.

    12. If any man should attempt to sell diseased cattle or damaged goods for sound, the market-keeper shall expel him, and the maidens shall proclaim him through the country.

    In early times almost all the Finns lived together in their native land, which was called Aldland, and is now submerged. They were thus far away, and we had no wars. When they were driven hitherwards, and appeared as robbers, then arose the necessity of defending ourselves, and we had armies, kings, and wars.

    For all this there were established regulations, and out of the regulations came fixed laws.

    Note Sandbach

    1. The market dues were paid in kind.

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